Cytochalasins are fungal metabolites that have the ability to bind to actin filaments and block polymerization and the elongation of actin. As a result of the inhibition of actin polymerization, cytochalasins can change cellular morphology, inhibit cellular processes such as cell division, and even cause cells to undergo apoptosis. Cytochalasins have the ability to permeate cell membranes, prevent cellular translocation and cause cells to enucleate. Cytochalasins can also have an effect on other aspects of biological processes unrelated to actin polymerization.

For example: Cytochalasin A and Cytochalasin B can also inhibit the transport of monosaccharides across the cell membrane. Cytochalasin H has been found to regulate plant growth, Cytochalasin D inhibits protein synthesis. Cytochalasin E prevents angiogenesis.