Ionophores are vast lipophilic materials proficient of reacting in exact proportion with metal ions (Ca2+, K+, H+, Na+), thereby functioning as a medium through which these ions can be transferred within a bimolecular lipid membrane. They are carboxylic polyether antibiotics, they are toxic to bacteria, fungi, protozoans, and higher organism and therefore fit into the category of antimicrobial compounds. They interrupt the ion concentration... Read More
Mycotoxins are defined as naturally occurring substances produced by filamentous fungi (moulds) that arouse toxic response when introduced in low amount to animals through a natural pathway. These fungi are referred to as “toxigenic” fungi. They grow naturally as a form of contaminants on some food crops majorly cereals, nuts and fruit. Conventionally, toxigenic fungi which contaminate crops have been grouped into two groups: “field” and “... Read More
Actinomycin D Actinomycin D  (Act D) is a natural chemopeptide which are isolated from the bacteria Streptomyces. Amongst Streptomyces bacteria, Streptomyces parvulus produces Act D with the highest antibiotic activities. It is also known as Dactinomycin or Actinomycin C1. The discovery of Actinomycin was in 1949 by Selman Waksman. Act D serves as an antibiotic, aside from the antibiotic purpose, it has been introduced as a cancer therapy. The... Read More
Oligomycin is a group of Streptomyces macrolides that bind to the Oligomycin sensitivity-conferring protein (OSCP) at the F(o) subunits 6 and 9 which are found in the stalk of the F1F0-ATPase complex. This binding blocks proton conductance across the synthase complex and inhibits the synthesis of mitochondrial ATP. As an additional result, the proton pumps of the electron transport chain are unable to operate because the gradient becomes too... Read More