Fumitremorgin C (Tryptoquivaline) is a diketopiperazine secondary metabolite, produces by Aspergillus clavatus (Clardy et al, 1975), Aspergillus fumigatus (Cui et al, 1996) and Neosartorya fischeri (Nielsen et al, 1988).  Related compounds produced by these strains are verruculogen and fumitremorgins A and B.   Biological Activity – toxicity, inhibition and cancer   Neurotoxicity Fumitremorgins effect the central nervous system, and cause... Read More
Review Enniatins are cyclohexadepsipeptides produces mainly by Fusarium species, but also by other fungi, as Verticillium and Halosarpheia (Sy-Cordero et al, 2012). Enniatin A was first isolated by Gaumann et al (1947). During the last decades, further 28 enniatins were discovered. The most common enniatins are Enniatin A, Enniatin A1, Enniatin B and Enniatin B1.   Occurrence and Toxicity Enniatins can be found in mould-infected cereals. Recent... Read More
Curvularin is a fungul macrocyclic lactone, produced by several fungi, including Curvularia (Kamal et al., 1962) and Penicillium (Fennell et al, 1959). Meepagala et al (2016) found that Curvularin and Dehydrocurvularin isolated from Curvularia intermedia are phytotoxins, cause severve necrosis and though can be used as natural biopesticides. Recent research investigated the activity of (S)-Curvularin as an anti-inflammatory agent. (S)-Curvularin... Read More
Staurosporine (AM-2282) is a natural antibiotic, first isolated in 1977 from Streptomyces staurosporeus (Omura et al, 1977). Staurosporine displays strong inhibitory effect against a variety of kinases. In addition, Staurosporine and its analogues exhibit antifungul, antibacterial and immunosuppressive activities. Staurosporine inhibit protein kinase C (PKC) by completely binding at the PKC ATP-binding site. Due to its strong inhibitory effect,... Read More