Curvularin is a fungul macrocyclic lactone, produced by several fungi, including Curvularia (Kamal et al., 1962) and Penicillium (Fennell et al, 1959).
Meepagala et al (2016) found that Curvularin and Dehydrocurvularin isolated from Curvularia intermedia are phytotoxins, cause severve necrosis and though can be used as natural biopesticides.
Recent research investigated the activity of (S)-Curvularin as an anti-inflammatory agent. (S)-Curvularin reduced the expression of proinflammatory genes in mice and in microarray analyses of human cells (Schmidt et al, 2012). (S)-Curvularin inhibits nitric oxide (NO) production through down regulation of the inducible NO synthase (iNOS). NO is an important mediator in osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis (Schmidt et al, 2010). Another research found that (S)-Curvularin and Dehydrocurvularin antagonized the cellular effects of TGF-β. TGF- β has a key role at cell cycle process, suggesting a potential use of (S)-Curvularin and Dehydrocurvularin as new drugs for cancer and fibrotic disorders (Rudolph et al, 2012).
- The anti-inflammatory fungal compound (S)-curvularin reduces proinflammatory gene expression in an in vivo model of rheumatoid arthritis., Schmidt N, Art J, Forsch I, Werner A, Erkel G, Jung M, Horke S, Kleinert H, Pautz A. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2012 Oct;343(1):106-14. doi: 10.1124/jpet.112.192047. PMID: 22767531
- Meepagala, K.M., Johnson, R.D. and Duke, S.O. (2016) Curvularin and Dehydrocurvularin as Phytotoxic Constituents from Curvularia intermedia Infecting Pandanus amaryllifolius. Journal of Agricultural Chemistry and Environment, 5, 12-22.
- Transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of iNOS expression in human chondrocytes., Schmidt N, Pautz A, Art J, Rauschkolb P, Jung M, Erkel G, Goldring MB, Kleinert H. Biochem Pharmacol. 2010 Mar 1;79(5):722-32. doi: 10.1016/j.bcp.2009.10.012., PMID: 19854161
- Inhibition of TGF-β signaling by the fungal lactones (S)-curvularin, dehydrocurvularin, oxacyclododecindione and galiellalactone., Rudolph K, Serwe A, Erkel G., Cytokine. 2013 Jan;61(1):285-96. doi: 10.1016/j.cyto.2012.10.011. PMID: 23134667
- Curvularin formation by penicillium steckii. Fennell D., Raper K.B. and Stodola F.H., Chem. Indust. 1382 (1959), Studies in the biochemistry of microorganisms – I. curvularin and curvulinic acid, metabolic products of curvularia Siddiqui. Kamal A., Ahmad N., Ali Khan M. and Qureshi I. H., Tetrahedrom (1962) 18:433